7. Employee costs €/000 116,202

Employee costs include €/000 6,625 mainly relating to costs for mobility plans for the Pontedera, Noale and Martorelles production sites.
The reduction during the year is due, among other things, to a considerable part of variable costs related to incentive systems for personnel at all levels, not being included, due to personnel failing to reach their objectives.

 1st half of 20131st half of 2012Change
In thousands of Euros  
Salaries and wages 89,620 91,730 (2,110)
Social security contributions 22,511 22,905 (394)
Post-employment benefits 3,776 4,187 (411)
Other costs 295 671 (376)
Total 116,202 119,493 (3,291)

Below is a breakdown of the head count by actual number and average number:

Average number
1st half of 2013 1st half of 2012 Change
Level
Senior Management 96 95 1
Middle Management 573 572 1
White collars 2,185 2,180 5
Manual labour 5,480 5,406 74
Total 8,334 8,253 81

Average employee numbers were affected by seasonal workers in the summer (on fixed-term and temporary employment contracts).

In fact the Group uses fixed-term employment contracts to handle typical peaks in demand in the summer months.

  Number as of
30 June 2013 31 December 2012 Change
Level
Senior Management 97 96 1
Middle Management 584 573 11
White collars 2,142 2,214 (72)
Manual labour 5,327 5,246 81
Total 8,150 8,129 21

Changes in employee numbers in the two periods are compared below:

As of 31/12/2012 Incoming Leavers Relocations As of 30/06/2013
Level
Senior Management 96 7 (8) 2 97
Middle Management 573 32 (42) 21 584
White collars 2,214 106 (161) (17) 2,142
Blue collars 5,246 1,737 (1,650) (6) 5,327
Total (*) 8,129 1,882 (1,861) 0 8,150
  (*) of which fixed-term contracts 2,031 1,753 (1,586) (223) 1,975

The increase in employee numbers is mainly attributable to the new two-wheeler plant in India, which offset the reductions in other geographic segments.

30 June 2013 31 December 2012 Change
Number as of
EMEA and Americas 4,179 4,318 (139)
India 3,037 2,814 223
Asia Pacific 2W 934 997 (63)
Total 8,150 8,129 21